Mumbai Demographics

Mumbai, the vibrant metropolis and financial capital of India, is renowned for its rich cultural tapestry and diverse demographics. This bustling city serves as a melting pot of cultures, attracting people from various regions, religions, and backgrounds. In this blog, we will delve into the diverse Mumbai demographics, exploring the different communities that contribute to the city’s multicultural fabric. Through data, statistics, and insightful analysis, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of Mumbai demographic composition. We will also see how the rich Mumbai demographics are shaping and driving Mumbai real estate growth.

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Table Overview of Mumbai Demographics

To provide a deeper insight into the diverse Mumbai demographics, let’s examine some data and statistics:

Demographic Factor Data/Statistics
Population21 million 
Religion DistributionHinduism: 65.99 percentIslam: 20.65 percentChristianity: 3.2 percentSikhism: 0.49 percentBuddhism: 4.85 percentJainism: 4.10 percentOthers: 0.40 percent
Average Literacy Rate89.73 percentMale literacy:  92.56 percentFemale literacy: 86.39 percent
Sex Ratio853Child-sex ratio: 913
Language SpokenMarathi (widely spoken)HindiGujaratiUrduTamilTeluguBengaliEnglish
States of Migrant PopulationUttar PradeshBiharWest BengalGujaratKerala
Source : Population Census

Mumbai Demographic Detailed Look

Mumbai’s population is estimated to be over 20 million, making it the most populous city in India. The city’s demographics are incredibly diverse, with a mix of indigenous communities and migrants from different parts of India and the world. Let’s examine some key demographic factors that shape the multicultural landscape of Mumbai.

Regional Diversity

Mumbai is a cosmopolitan city that welcomes people from all over India. While Maharashtra, the state in which Mumbai is located, is the dominant contributor to the city’s population, there is a significant presence of individuals from other states as well. States like Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Karnataka contribute to the diverse regional demographics of Mumbai.

Religious Diversity

Religion plays a significant role in shaping Mumbai demographics. The city is home to followers of various religions, including Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The majority of the population practices Hinduism (65.99 percent), followed by Islam (20.65 percent). Mumbai has iconic religious landmarks such as the Siddhivinayak Temple, Haji Ali Dargah, Mount Mary Church, and the Global Vipassana Pagoda, representing the religious diversity of the city.

Literacy Rate

In terms of education, Mumbai City has a total of 10,084,507 literate individuals, out of which 5,633,709 are males and 4,450,798 are females. The average literacy rate in Mumbai is 89.73 percent.  Male literacy is at 92.56 percent, and female literacy is at 86.39 percent.

Sex Ratio

The sex ratio in Mumbai city stands at 853 females per 1000 males. In terms of the child-sex ratio, there are 913 girls for every 1000 boys.

Linguistic Diversity

Mumbai is a linguistic mosaic, with numerous languages spoken by its residents. While Marathi, the official language of Maharashtra, is widely spoken, other languages like Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, and English are also prevalent. This linguistic diversity adds to the multicultural fabric of the city and reflects the influence of different communities.

Migrant Communities

Mumbai’s population is significantly influenced by migration from other parts of India. People come to Mumbai in search of employment, education, and better opportunities. The city has a large population of migrants from states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, and Kerala. These migrants contribute to the workforce, economy, and cultural diversity of Mumbai.

Cultural Influence and Coexistence

The diversity of Mumbai demographics has created a unique cultural landscape where different communities coexist and influence one another. This multicultural environment is reflected in various aspects of life, including food, festivals, music, art, and cinema. Mumbai’s street food scene, for instance, offers a blend of regional cuisines from across India, allowing residents and visitors to savor diverse flavors.

The city’s calendar is filled with festivals celebrated by different communities. Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, and Pongal are some of the major festivals that are observed with great enthusiasm and participation. These festivities showcase the cultural vibrancy and harmony that exists among Mumbai’s diverse communities.

Cultural Influence Driving Real Estate Growth 

The rich cultural influence of Mumbai is playing a crucial role in driving the growth of commercial hubs, IT parks, and warehousing in the city. Mumbai’s cultural diversity and economic significance attract businesses from various industries, leading to the development of commercial spaces to cater to their needs. Let’s explore how cultural influence contributes to the growth of these sectors:

Commercial Hubs

Mumbai’s cultural vibrancy has led to the creation of several commercial hubs where businesses can thrive. The city’s status as a major financial and economic center in India attracts multinational corporations, banks, and financial institutions. These businesses require well-planned and strategically located commercial spaces to operate efficiently. Areas like Nariman Point, Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC), and Lower Parel have transformed into bustling commercial hubs, offering state-of-the-art office spaces and amenities to cater to the demands of businesses. The rich cultural heritage and diverse population in these areas also contribute to a vibrant business environment, making them attractive destinations for commercial investments.

IT Parks

Mumbai’s cultural diversity and cosmopolitan lifestyle have made it an attractive destination for the IT and technology industry. The city’s large pool of talented and skilled professionals, combined with its strategic geographical location, makes it an ideal choice for setting up IT parks. Areas like Powai and Andheri have witnessed the establishment of IT parks that provide world-class infrastructure and amenities to technology companies. Additionally, the presence of educational institutions and cultural centers in these areas ensures a steady supply of skilled workforce, further fueling the growth of the IT sector and driving the demand for commercial spaces in these regions.

Warehousing and Logistics

Mumbai’s cultural heritage as a trading and commercial center has contributed to the growth of the warehousing and logistics industry. The city’s strategic coastal location and well-developed transportation network make it a vital hub for the movement and storage of goods. With the rise of e-commerce and the increasing demand for efficient supply chain solutions, there is a growing need for modern warehousing facilities in Mumbai. Areas like Bhiwandi and Panvel have witnessed significant growth in warehousing infrastructure to cater to the needs of businesses involved in trading and distribution. The diverse cultural communities in these areas also contribute to the labor force needed for the logistics sector.

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NRIs Driving Mumbai’s real estate growth

NRI (Non-Resident Indian) inflows play a crucial role in driving Mumbai’s real estate growth. Mumbai, being a major economic and cultural hub of India, attracts significant interest from NRIs looking to invest in the Indian property market. There are several ways in which NRI inflows impact the real estate sector in Mumbai:

  • Increased Demand for Residential Properties: NRIs often invest in residential properties in Mumbai for various reasons, including investment purposes, future retirement plans, or to maintain a connection with their homeland. This increased demand for residential properties boosts the overall real estate market and can lead to price appreciation in certain localities.
  • High-End Luxury Projects: Many NRIs prefer to invest in high-end luxury properties in Mumbai. This demand for premium real estate drives the development of luxury residential projects in upscale neighborhoods. Builders and developers often cater to this niche market by offering world-class amenities and top-notch services, further enhancing the city’s skyline.
  • Investment in Commercial Spaces: Apart from residential properties, NRIs also invest in commercial spaces such as office buildings, retail complexes, and co-working spaces. As Mumbai is a major business and financial center, the demand for commercial properties remains high. NRI investments in this segment contribute to the growth of the commercial real estate sector.

Bottom Line

Mumbai stands as a testament to the incredible diversity and multiculturalism that defines India. With a population representing different regions, religions, and languages, the city thrives as a melting pot of cultures. The coexistence of various communities in Mumbai has contributed to the city’s rich heritage, cultural vibrancy, and inclusive spirit.

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Reference Links

  1. A Comprehensive Guide to the Mumbai Real Estate Market 2023
  2. Best Places to Invest in Navi Mumbai
  3. Mumbai Land Rates and Investment Opportunities in 2023


Q1. What are the demographics of Mumbai?

A. The population of Mumbai in crores is 21 crores.

Q2. What religion is Mumbai’s demography?

A. The majority religion of Mumbai’s demography is Hinduism with 65.99 percent.

Q3. Is Mumbai ethically diverse?

A. Yes, Mumbai is ethnically diverse.

Q4. What is the population of Dharavi population?

A. The population of Dharavi is 1 million.

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